• "Innovation is often perceived as an unmanageable phenomenon. Bets are placed on new products with the hope that a few winners will compensate for the many losers. At best, sophisticated selection procedures impose a certain discipline and provide guidance for containing costly errors. The research that we have conducted yields a more nuanced view. Innovation, we have found, becomes manageable when managers move away from universalistic prescriptions and recognise that different rules and practices apply in different contexts. Our main argument is that both executives and public officials need to learn from the new realities of innovation. Instead of being a uniform process, innovation takes place in seven distinct ‘games’, focusing on market creation, market maintenance and innovator support."